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EL DEFICIT DE ATENCION EN NI�?OS

Publicado el 26 Ee marzo Ee 2020 a las 9:00



¿Tu hijo/a muestra problemas a la hora de mantener la atención?

 

Hoy en día, cuando escuchamos déficit de atención, rápidamente lo relacionamos con TDAH (Trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad), porque mostramos más atención al síntoma de la hiperactividad debido a que nos encontramos con situaciones de caos, explosión de emociones y problemas de conducta en los niños, que nos cuesta afrontar como padres, tutores o profesionales. Son situaciones que nos lleva a la desorganización e impotencia por no saber dirigir hacia la tranquilidad, cuando realmente en algunas ocasiones se trata de una necesidad que requerimos más nosotros por sentirnos desbordados ante ellos y no el niño.


¿Es lo mismo TDAH que TDA?

El déficit es un síntoma que pasa más desapercibido, sobre todo en los niños que se muestran tranquilos. Con el paso de los años, se ha ido observando casos de menores con problemas de mantener la atención reflejados primeramente en la escuela, pero que si nos detenemos un momento podremos verlo en su juego.

Tras el nuevo cambio en el DSM- V, reconoce este trastorno del neurodesarrollo, las tres especificaciones del “Trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad” siendo:

 Presentación combinada

 Presentación dominante con falta de atención

 Presentación predominante hiperactividad/impulsiva.


 

¿Cuáles son las diferencias entre TDAH y TDA?

Los menores con déficit de atención reflejan un comportamiento de distracción con facilidad, que les lleva a cometer errores precipitadas en las tareas y frustración ante los resultados, debido a su dificultad de retener información y en su memoria de trabajo. No se trata de no saber realizar dicha tarea, sino de mostrar una dificultad en mantener un trabajo cognitivo. Muestran una tendencia hipoactividad, es decir, pueden realizar varias tareas a la vez desde el lugar de la tranquilidad aunque sus resultados no sean los esperados. Se puede tender equivocadamente a representarlos como niños desmotivados, introyectivos, tímidos, perezosos e incluso irresponsables.

Al contrario, los menores con hiperactividad se muestran inquietos y realizando movimientos excesivos en situaciones inadecuadas. Suelen presentar comportamientos agresivos con dificultad de mantener el control ante emociones de enfado, teniendo una necesidad de obtener recursos para la gestión y expresión de la ira. Sus consecuencias pueden verse reflejadas tanto en la escuela como en sus habilidades sociales. Si no se trabaja estos síntomas en el periodo de la infancia, puede complicarse en la adolescencia debido a los grandes cambios neurológicos y hormonales que se sufren en esta etapa.

Ambos tienen en común la dificultad de mantener la atención, su tendencia a la precipitación y llevar a cabo las rutinas de forma continua.

En función de su especificidad se le asigna las siglas:

 TDAH: Trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad

 TDA: Trastorno de déficit de atención


 

¿Cuáles son los síntomas del TDA?

Cada niño con TDA quizá se muestre muy diferente entre uno y otro pero las características más destacables y comunes son las siguientes:

 Dificultad en mantener la atención a los detalles de una actividad

 Errores por descuido de inatención

 Falta de atención en sostener la atención en actividades

 No llevar a cabo las instrucciones y pautas que se le asigna

 No finalizar una tarea u obligaciones

 Tendencia a la hiperestimulación

 Comportamiento descuidado ante actividades rutinarias

 Evita realizar tareas que requieren un esfuerzo mental continuo

 Dificultad para comenzar y terminar una actividad

 Falta de organización por dificultad

 Comportamientos de frustración

 Tendencia al “despiste” y al olvido

 Apariencia de no entender o escuchar

 Distracción con facilidad


 

Recomendaciones

A partir de los 6 años podremos ver con mayor facilidad algunos de sus síntomas más destacables, para ello existen multitud de tratamientos que han sido o no demostrados científicamente y han dado resultados positivos. Uno de los tratamientos más completos y que se considera adecuado para comenzar ante la primera detección es la psicoeducación.

La psicoeducación aborda la enseñanza tanto al menor como a su entorno familiar de sus características individuales y tips para mejorar la atención, además de ofrecer diferentes vías de intervención que se pueda realizar. Igualmente, la meditación para trabajar tanto las emociones positivas como aprender a sostener la atención.


Laura Andrade

 

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